Gender and Culture in American Society

Are you male or female? How do you know? When you were a baby, did your parents dress you in pink or blue? Who dressed you, fed you, changed your diapers—your mother or father? Who is/are the wage-earner(s) in your family? And do you live with your mother and father or is your family structured another way? Do you know how to behave in a typically masculine/feminine way? Why do we have stereotypes about girls who play football and guys who do gymnastics? Is Belle a bad role model? Is Anakin a good role model? What are the advantages to these gender roles? What are the disadvantages?

Gender theorists point to the variations in gender roles observed among different cultures in arguing that gender—our masculinity or femininity—is a social construct rather than an innate biological characteristic. Because there is no universal “right” way to be a man or a woman, they argue that our ways of “doing gender” are shaped by social cues and influences.

As we explore questions like the ones I posed above, questions of family structures, of social cues about what is masculine and what is feminine, of wages and leisure activities, we will analyze cultural norms that dictate appropriate behavior—in other words, we will do “gender studies.”

Gender studies is an interdisciplinary academic field that explores questions like those above and many more! Drawing on scholarship from fields as diverse as literature and sociology, psychology and anthropology, theology and biology, history and political science, business/marketing and philosophy, among others, gender theorists explore the ways that we live as gendered, embodied people. Gendered research considers how we understand gender and how society enforces, supports, or impedes this understanding.

In this seminar, we explore some contemporary gender issues. While our case studies primarily focus on American society, I follow students’ interests in exploring international issues as well, to the extent possible given the timeframe of the course. Topics discussed might include: the Disney Princess phenomenon, media activism like the #antifeminist or Bring Back Our Girls campaigns, cyber-bullying, treatment of female candidates in election seasons, the gendering of toys, domestic violence in dating relationships, body image expectations, gender nonconforming youth, and gendered roles within family structures.

We will address the questions of how “woman”/“the feminine” and “man”/“the masculine” have been known, represented, created, and understood in our cultural system. In the process, we will explore the relationship between popular culture and gender, as well as how the media constructs gender and how those constructions become cultural norms and mores.

Class time will consist of a mix of lectures, discussion sessions, visits from Notre Dame professors working on gender-related research, and media analysis (i.e. television/movie/magazine/advertisements).

Learning Outcomes Students will develop a deeper awareness of the gendered society in which we live, including the norms and values associated with each gender and how these affect personal life choices and social status.

Students will develop a basic understanding of current theoretical explanations of gender, including femininity, masculinity, sexualities, patriarchy, and feminism.

Students will learn and practice the methodological tools of social science inquiry, including ethnographic research, participant observation, close reading skills, and interview techniques.

Students will develop and apply critical reading and analysis skills to media and literature. The media that saturate our society provide excellent examples of gender norms and stereotypes, and function as important socialization agents; we will frequently draw on examples from the media for our discussions about contemporary gender issues. In investigating how gender is defined and replicated by the media, students also critically analyze the effect of popular culture on their own lives.

Academic Director

Dr. Pamela Wynne Butler

Dr. Pamela Wynne Butler

Dr. Pamela Wynne Butler is the visiting associate director and director of Undergraduate studies in the Gender Studies Program at Notre Dame.

Dr. Butler holds a Ph.D. in American Studies with a graduate minor in gender, women, and sexuality studies, from the University of Minnesota, and has been teaching in the field of gender studies since 2003. Her areas of expertise include post/feminist pop culture; U.S. histories of gender, sexuality, and empire; feminist political economy; and the carceral state.

In addition to her administrative and advising work in Gender Studies, Dr. Butler teaches Introduction to Gender Studies, as well as courses on such varied topics as prisons, marriage, popular culture, and the history of handcrafts. Her scholarly work focuses on the histories of race and sexuality in popular and public cultures in the United States. She is currently researching a book on the political history of knitting in the United States since the mid-nineteenth century, emphasizing the ways in which domestic handcrafts have produced diverse racial and sexual subjectivities through such sites as the home, the prison, the museum, and the global economy.